Influence of geographic provenance on phenotypic variation in seed and kernel traits of the African oil tree from southern Benin and implications for species breeding

  • Yves Yatindo BOKO-HAYA University of Parakou, Faculty of Agronomy, Laboratory of Forestry Studies and Research, BP 123 Parakou; University of Abomey-Calavi, Faculty of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Genome Analysis, 01BP 526, Cotonou
  • Christine A.I.N. OUINSAVI University of Parakou, Faculty of Agronomy, Laboratory of Forestry Studies and Research, BP 123 Parakou
  • Yanick Y. AKIN University of Parakou, Faculty of Agronomy, Laboratory of Forestry Studies and Research, BP 123 Parakou; University of Abomey-Calavi, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, Laboratory of Biomathematics and Forest Estimation, 04 BP 1525, Cotonou
  • Clément AGBANGLA University of Abomey-Calavi, Faculty of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Genome Analysis, 01BP 526, Cotonou
Keywords: accessions, domestication, forest products, maps, mass, multipurpose tree, provenances


Knowledge of oilseeds plants’ traits and features is fundamental to understanding the natural selection process and improving conservation programs through species selection. As a forest oilseed, Ricinodendron heudelotii is the object of growing interest among value chain actors, who are increasingly interested in its intrinsic characteristics. To date, there is a lack of information on plant morphological traits for the selection of the best genotype, especially as far as seed and kernel traits are concerned. The aim of this study was to make a typology and establish the relationship between seed and kernel traits of Ricinodendron heudelotii, depending on provenances represented by wild populations of trees in southern Benin. We sampled the provenances constituted equally and per tree, ten random samples each of fruits, seeds, kernels, and shells were collected for measurement. Hierarchical classification, common component analysis, Pearson’s, and Chi-square association tests were performed for statistical analysis. Substantial variation between seed and kernel traits was observed between and within provenances. High coefficients of variation for the quantitative descriptors (length, width, and mass) of seeds and kernels appear to be the essential traits that discriminate the plant into two morphotypes. Furthermore, seed and kernel characteristics show a significant positive correlation with these discrimination criteria. The upper morphotype contains accessions from three provenances with huge seeds and kernels but few seeds per fruit, while the lower morphotype includes the other provenances with tiny seeds and kernels. The results of the study provided essential information that could be an avenue for improvement with further biochemical and molecular characterization studies.


Download data is not yet available.


Abasse T, Weber JC, Katkore B, Larwanou M, Kalinganire A (2011). Morphological variation in Balanites aegyptiaca fruits and seeds within and among parkland agroforests in eastern Niger. Agroforestry Systems 81:57-66.

Adler PB, Fajardo, A, Kleinhesselink AR, Kraf NJB (2013) Trait-based tests of coexistence mechanisms. Ecology Letters 16:1294-1306.

Adomou AC, Sinsin B, van der Maesen LJG (2006). Phytosociological and chorological approaches to phytogeography: a mesoscale study in Benin. Systematics and Geography of Plants 76:155-178.

Agúndez D, Nouhoheflin T, Coulibaly O, Soliño M, Alía R (2020). Local preferences for Shea nut and butter production in Northern Benin: Preliminary results. Forests 11:13.

Ahamidé ID, Tossou MG, Yédomonhan H, Adomou AC, Houénon J, Akoègnimou A (2017). Diversité des Loranthaceae et leur impact sur Vitellaria paradoxa CF Gaertn: un fruitier à grande valeur socioéconomique au Nord-Bénin. European Scientific Journal 13:1857-7881.

Akoègninou A, van der Burg W, van der Maesen L, Adjakidjè V, Essou J, Sinsin B, Yédomonhan H (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin[Analytical Flora of Benin]. Cotonou & Wageningen: Backhuys.

Akpovo AH, Fandohan AB (2021). Usages, distribution des connaissances traditionnelles et valeur économique de Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Pierre ex. Pax au Bénin [Uses, distribution of traditional knowledge and economic value of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Pierre ex. Pax in Benin]. Revue Marocaine des Sciences Agronomiques et Vétérinaires 9(2):274-285.

Amirchakhmaghi N, Yousefzadeh H, Hosseinpour B, Espahbodi K, Aldaghi M, Cornille A (2018). First insight into genetic diversity and population structure of the Caucasian wild apple (Malus orientalis Uglitzk.) in the Hyrcanian forest (Iran) and its resistance to apple scab and powdery mildew. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 65:1255-1268.

Assanvo EF, Gogoi P, Dolui SK, Baruah SD (2015). Synthesis, characterization, and performance characteristics of alkyd resins based on Ricinodendron heudelotii oil and their blending with epoxy resins. Industrial Crops and Products 65:293-302.

Assogbadjo AE, Kakai RG, Kyndt T, Sinsin B (2010). Conservation genetics of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in the parklands agroforestry systems of Benin (West Africa). Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 38:136-140.

Ayuk ET, Dugum B, Franzel S, Rengue J, Molle M, Tiki-Manga T, Zenkeng P (1999). Uses, management and economic potential of Garcinia kola and Ricinodendron heudelotii in the humid lowlands of Cameroon. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 11:746-761.

Aziz L, Mormont M, Allali K (2013). Effets de la marchandisation de l’arganier sur la vie socioéconomique des populations de l’arganeraie marocaine [Effects of the commercialization of the argan tree on the socio-economic life of the populations of the Moroccan argan tree]. VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement 13(1).

Bai S, Randall B, Grant E, Gama R, Gua B, Keli D, Negalevu P, Oakeshott J, Wallace H (2022). Tree-to-tree variation of kernel size in two underutilized tree nuts in Pacific. Acta Horticulturae 1340:141-144.

Barak RS, Lichtenberger TM, Wellman-Houde A, Kramer AT, Larkin DJ (2018). Cracking the case: Seed traits and phylogeny predict time to germination in prairie restoration species. Ecology and Evolution 8:5551-5562.

Barthlott W (1981). Epidermal and seed surface characters of plants: Systematic applicability and some evolutionary aspects. Nordic Journal of Botany 1:345-355.

Bates D, Maechler M, Bolker B, Walker S, Christensen RH, Singmann H, Dai B (2015). lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. R package version 1.1-7. 2014.

Bawa KS (2016). Kin selection and the evolution of plant reproductive traits. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 283:20160789.

Belcadi Haloui R, Zekhnini A, El Madidi S, Hatimi A (2017). Variability in seeds of Argania spinosa according to the shape and the geographic origin of the fruit. Indian Journal of Natural Sciences 7(40):1230-12037.

Boko-Haya YY, Ouinsavi AIN, Houngbeme GA, Gbaguidi F, Agbangla C (2017). Traditional uses, phytochemistry and in vitro evaluation of toxicity of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill Pierre Ex Heckel) leaves in Benin. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research 8:21227-21236.

Boko-Haya YY, Ouinsavi CAIN, Ewédjè E-EBK, Akin YY, Zinkpe T, Agbangla C (2021). Variability of seed germination and seedling growth potential of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Euphorbiaceae) at fine scale in southern of Benin. East African Journal of Forestry and Agroforestry 3:1-17.

Clydesdale FM (1991). Colour perception and food quality 1. Journal of Food Quality 14:61-74.

Čolić S, Rakonjac V, Zec G, Nikolić D, Fotirić Akšić M (2012). Morphological and biochemical evaluation of selected almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] genotypes in northern Serbia. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 36:429-438.

Colombe D, Mireille T, Aggrey BN, Kolawole VS, Achille EA (2018). Impact of land-use on tree and fruit morphometric variation of the bitter kola (Garcinia kola Heckel) in Benin: Insight for domestication and production. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry 10:127-134.

Cosyns H, Degrande A, De Wulf R, Van Damme P, Tchoundjeu Z (2011). Ricinodendron heudelotii kernel group commercialization and its impact on farmers’ livelihoods in Cameroon. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics 112:45-56.

Coulibaly M, N’dri DY, Abouo V, Kouamé CA, Kouassi NK, Amani GN (2018). The impact of post-harvest traditional technologies on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of seeds kernels “akpi” of Côte d’Ivoire (West Africa). International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition Engineering 8:15-26.

Di Santo LN, Polgar M, Nies S, Hodgkiss P, Canning CA, Wright JW, Hamilton JA (2021). Seed morphological traits as a tool to quantify variation maintained in ex situ collections: A case study in Pinus torreyana. AoB Plants 13:plab058.

Djekota C, Mouga M, Djimramadji A, Djelassem B, Mbayngone E, Maiga RD, Rimgoto K, Noubady D (2014). Potentiel karité au Tchad (Vitellaria paradoxa CF Gaertn. subsp. paradoxa). Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 23:3646-3656.

Ene-Obong H, Onuoha N, Aburime L, Mbah O (2018). Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of some indigenous spices consumed in Nigeria. Food Chemistry 238:58-64.

Eyog Matig O, Ndoye O, Kengue J, Awono A (2006) Les fruitiers forestiers comestibles du Cameroun. IPGRI Regional Office for West and Central Africa c/o ITTA 08 B.P. 0932 Cotonou, Benin.

Fagbohoun L, Vieillescazes C, Mathe C, Romeggio C (2019). Couleurs et plantes colourantes dans l’art yoruba Enquête de terrain. CeROArt. Conservation, exposition, Restauration d’Objets d’Art.

FAO (2022). The role of genetic resources for food and agriculture in adaptation to and mitigation of climate change. FAO, Rome, Italy pp 174 pp.

Fondoun JM, Manga TT, Kengue J (1999). Ricinodendron heudelotii (Djansang): Ethnobotany and importance for forest dwellers in southern Cameroon. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 1-6.

Fongnzossie EF, Nyangono CFB, Biwole AB, Ebai PNB, Ndifongwa NB, Motove J, Dibong SD (2020). Wild edible plants and mushrooms of the Bamenda Highlands in Cameroon: Ethnobotanical assessment and potentials for enhancing food security. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 16:12.

Franzel S, Akinnifesi FK, Ham C (2007). Setting priorities among indigenous fruit tree species in Africa: Examples from southern, eastern and western Africa regions. Indigenous Fruit Trees in the Tropics: Domestication, Utillization and Commercialization pp 1-69.

Fredrick C, Muthuri C, Ngamau K, Sinclair F (2015.) Provenance variation in seed morphological characteristics, germination and early seedling growth of Faidherbia albida. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry 7:127-140.

Ghildiyal SK, Sharma CM, Gairola S (2009). Environmental variation in seed and seedling characteristics of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. From Uttarakhand, India. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 17:121-129.

Gros-Balthazard M, Newton C, Ivorra S, Pierre M-H, Pintaud J-C, Terral J-F (2016). The domestication syndrome in Phoenix dactylifera seeds: toward the identification of wild date palm populations. PloS One 11:e0152394.

Grozeva NH, Gerdzhikova MA, Pavlov DH, Panayotova GD, Todorova MH (2016). Morphological variability of the Bulgarian endemic Betonica bulgarica Degen et Neič. (Lamiaceae) from Sinite Kamani Natural Park, Eastern Balkan Range. Acta Botanica Croatica 75:81-88.

Harel D, Holzapfel C, Sternberg M (2011). Seed mass and dormancy of annual plant populations and communities decreases with aridity and rainfall predictability. Basic and Applied Ecology 12:674-684.

Helm A, Oja T, Saar L, Takkis K, Talve T, Pärtel M (2009). Human influence lowers plant genetic diversity in communities with extinction debt. Journal of Ecology 97:1329-1336.

Holsinger KE (2000). Demography and extinction in small populations. In: Young AG, Clarke GM (Eds). Genetics, Demography and Viability of Fragmented Populations. Conservation Biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 55-74.

Honfo FG, Linnemann AR, Akissoe NH, Soumanou MM, van Boekel MAJS (2012). Indigenous Knowledge of Shea Processing and Quality Perception of Shea Products in Benin. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 51:505-525.

Hounsou-Dindin G, Idohou R, Donou Hounsode MT, Adomou AC, Assogbadjo AE, Glèlè Kakaï R (2021). Effects of seed provenance, pre-treatment and mass on germinability and seedling growth of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile and Ricinodendron heudelotii (Bail.) Pierre in Benin (West Africa). Heliyon 7:e08540.

Hounsou-Dindin G, Idohou R, Donou Hounsode MT, Adomou AC, Assogbadjo AE, Glèlè Kakaï R (2022). Distribution and structural characterization of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile and Ricinodendron heudelotii (Bail.) Pierre among phytodistricts and land use types in Benin (West Africa). Tropical Ecology.

Ishara J, Ayagirwe R, Karume K, Mushagalusa GN, Bugeme D, Niassy S, Udomkun P, Kinyuru J (2022). Inventory reveals wide biodiversity of edible insects in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Scientific Reports 12:1576.

Johnson BN, Quashie MLA, Chaix G, Camus-Kulandaivelu L, Adjonou K, Segla KN, Kokutse AD, Ouinsavi C, Bationo BA, Rabiou H, Kokou K, Vignes H (2020). Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for the threatened African endemic tree species Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. Ecology and Evolution 10:13403-13411.

Jongschaap REE, Corré W, Bindraban PS, Brandenburg WA (2007). Claims and facts on Jatropha curcas L. Global Jatropha curcas evaluation, breeding and propagation programme. Plant Research International. Report 158, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Joswig JS, Wirth C, Schuman MC, Kattge J, Reu B, Wright IJ, (…) Mahecha MD (2022). Climatic and soil factors explain the two-dimensional spectrum of global plant trait variation. Nature Ecology and Evolution 6:36-50.

Khadivi-Khub A, Etemadi-Khah A (2015). Phenotypic diversity and relationships between morphological traits in selected almond (Prunus amygdalus) germplasm. Agroforestry Systems 89:205-216.

Kinge EE, Djikeng FT, Karuna MSL, Ngoufack FZ, Womeni HM (2019). Effect of boiling and roasting on the physicochemical properties of Djansang seeds (Ricinodendron heudelotii). Food Science and Nutrition 7:3425-3434.

Kołodziejek J (2017). Effect of seed position and soil nutrients on seed mass, germination and seedling growth in Peucedanum oreoselinum (Apiaceae). Scientific Reports 7:1959.

Kouame N, Gnahoua G, Kouassi K, Traore D (2008). Plantes alimentaires spontanées de la région du Fromager (Centre- Ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire): flore, habitats et organes consommés [Spontaneous food plants from the Fromager region (Central-Western Côte d'Ivoire): flora, habitats and organs consumed]. Sciences and Nature 5(1):61-70.

Kuznetsova A, Brockhoff P, Christensen R (2017). lmerTest Package: Tests in Linear Mixed Effects Models. Journal of Statistical Software 82:1-26.

Leonard J (1961). Notulae systematicae XXXII: Observations sur des espèces africaines de Clutia, Ricinodendron et Sapium (Euphorbiacees) [Observations on African species of Clutia, Ricinodendron and Sapium (Euphorbiacees)]. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l’État a Bruxelles 31(3):391-4031.

Lloyd HB, Cruz-Motta JJ, Glasby TM, Hutchings PA, Gribben PE (2020). Unusual but consistent latitudinal patterns in macroalgal habitats and their invertebrate communities across two countries. Diversity and Distributions 26:912-927.

Loha A, Tigabu M, Teketay D, Lundkvist K, Fries A (2006). Provenance variation in seed morphometric traits, germination, and seedling growth of Cordia africana Lam. New Forests 32:71-86.

Louati M, Khouja A, Abdelkrim AB, Hannachi AS, Baraket G (2019). Adaptation of Argania spinosa L. in Northern Tunisia: Soil analysis and morphological traits variability. Scientia Horticulturae 255:220-230.

Lovas-Kiss Á, Vincze O, Kleyheeg E, Sramkó G, Laczkó L, Fekete R, Molnár VA, Green AJ (2020). Seed mass, hardness, and phylogeny explain the potential for endozoochory by granivorous waterbirds. Ecology and Evolution 10:1413-1424.

Madjelia CED, Kadidiatou HK (2015). Morphological characteristic variation of eleven provenances of Moringa oleifera seedlings grown in the Northern Sudanese area of Burkina Faso. African Journal of Plant Science 9:401-411.

Mama A, Oumorou M, Sinsin B, de Canniere C, Bogaert J (2020). Anthropization of natural landscapes protected areas in Bénin: Case study of the classified forest of Upper Alibori (FC-AS). American Journal of Innovative Research and Applied Sciences 11:117-125.

Manga TT, Foundon JM, Kengue J, Thiengang C (2000). Chemical composition of Ricinonderon heudelotii: an indigenous fruit tree in southern Cameroon. African Crop Science Journal 8:195-201.

Marchenay P, Lagarde MF (1986). Prospection et collecte des variétés locales de plantes cultivées – Guide pratique [Survey and collection of local varieties of cultivated plants - Practical guide]. Conservatoire Botanique de Porquerolles.

Moussa A, Koko KI, Fandohan AB (2020). Domestication de Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Pierre ex Heckel: savoirs traditionnels, germination et croissance des jeunes plants en milieu contrôlé [Domestication of Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Pierre ex Heckel: traditional knowledge germination and growth of young plants in a controlled environment]. Revue Ivoirienne des Sciences et Technologie 35:247-269.

Mpeck MLN, Asaah E, Tchoundjeu Z, Atangana AR (2003). Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment 1:257-262.

Nakyewa B, Sseremba G, Kabod NP, Rwothtimutung M, Kyebalyenda T, Waholi K, Buteme R, Nakanwangi MJ, Bishop G, Kizito EB (2021). Farmer preferred traits and genotype choices in Solanum aethiopicum L., Shum group. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 17:27.

Nde DB, Boldor D, Astete C, Muley P, Xu Z (2016). Oil extraction from sheanut (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn C.F.) kernels assisted by microwaves. Journal of Food Science and Technology 53:1424-1434.

Ndumbe LN, Ingram V, Tchamba M, Nya S (2018). From trees to money: the contribution of njansang (Ricinodendron heudelotii) products to value chain stakeholders’ financial assets in the South West Region of Cameroon. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 28(1):52-67.

Nevill PG, Bossinger G, Ades PK (2010). Phylogeography of the world’s tallest angiosperm, Eucalyptus regnans: evidence for multiple isolated Quaternary refugia. Journal of Biogeography 37:179-192.

Olasehinde GI, Akinlabu DK, Owoeye FT, Owolabi EF, Audu OY, Mordi RC (2016). Phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of oil extracts from the seeds of Ricinodendron heudelotii. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant 10:362-365.

Orman E, Ateş D, Özkuru E, Hepaksoy S, Kafkas S, Tanyolaç MB (2020). Association mapping of several nut characters in walnut (Juglans regia L.). Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 44:208-227.

Ouattara ND, Gaille E, Stauffer FW, Bakayoko A (2016). Diversité floristique et ethnobotanique des plantes sauvages comestibles dans le Département de Bondoukou (Nord-Est de la Côte d’Ivoire) [Floristic and ethnobotanical diversity of wild edible plants in the Department of Bondoukou (North-East of Côte d'Ivoire)]. Journal of Applied Biosciences 98:9284.

Padonou E, Kassa B, Assogbadjo A, Chakeredza S, Babatoundé B, Gèlè KakaÏ R (2013). Differences in germination capacity and seedling growth between different seed morphotypes of Afzelia africana Sm. in Benin (West Africa). Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 88:679-684.

Pilling D, Bélanger J, Diulgheroff S, Koskela J, Leroy G, Mair G, Hoffmann I (2020). Global status of genetic resources for food and agriculture: challenges and research needs: Global status of genetic resources for food and agriculture. Genetic Resources 1:4-16.

Plenderleith K (1997). Ricinodendron heudelotii: a state of knowledge study undertaken for the Central African Regional Program for the Environment. Oxford Forestry Institute, Department of Plant Science, University of Oxford, UK.

Porter SS (2013). Adaptive divergence in seed colour camouflage in contrasting soil environments. New Phytologist 197:1311-1320.

Rimlinger A, Raharimalala N, Letort V, Rakotomalala J-J, Crouzillat D, Guyot R, Hamon P, Sabatier S (2020). Phenotypic diversity assessment within a major ex situ collection of wild endemic coffees in Madagascar. Annals of Botany 126:849-863.

Sakar EH, El Yamani M, Boussakouran A, Rharrabti Y (2021). Genotypic and environmental variations in kernel color indices in the main almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) cultivars grown in North-Eastern Morocco. Scientifica 2021:e9970223.

Sama H, Traoré DK, Guenné S, Hilou A, Dicko MH (2022). Effect of pedo-climatic conditions on physicochemical characteristics and agro-industrial potential of three native oilseeds fruits from Burkina Faso. BMC Plant Biology 22:321.

Schlaepfer DR, Braschler B, Rusterholz H-P, Baur B (2018). Genetic effects of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on remnant animal and plant populations: a meta-analysis. Ecosphere 9:e02488.

Shackleton S, Shackleton C (2005). The contribution of marula (Sclerocarya birrea) fruit and fruit products to rural livelihoods in the Bushbuckridge District, South Africa: Balancing domestic needs and commercialisation. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 15:3-24.

Sharapov N (1959). Maslichnye rasteniya i masloobrazovatel’nyi protsess [Oil plants and oil production process), Moscow-Leningrad: Akad. Nauk SSSR.

Silva Mascarenhas AA, Scatena VL (2021). Seed morphology and post‐seminal development in Leiothrix Ruhland (Eriocaulaceae, Poales). Feddes Repertorium 132(1):9-19.

Singh B, Bhatt BP, Prasad P (2006). Variation in seed and seedling traits of Celtis australis, a multipurpose tree, in Central Himalaya, India. Agroforestry Systems 67:115-122.

Singh O, Thapliyal M (2012). Variation in cone and seed characters in blue pine (Pinus wallichiana) across natural distribution in western Himalayas. Journal of Forestry Research 23:235-239.

Sokpon N (1995). Régénération naturelle dans les trouées de la forêt dense semi-décidue de Pobè, Sud-Est Bénin [ Natural regeneration in the gaps of the dense semi-deciduous forest of Pobè, South-East Benin]. Belgian Journal of Botany 128:13-32.

Sut S, Dall’Acqua S, Bene K, Marco SB di, Sinan KI, Mahomoodally MF, Picot-Allain MCN, Zengin G (2020). Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Heckel stem barks and seed extracts, a native food plant from Africa: Characterization by NMR and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Food Research International 129.

Tabuna H (1999). Le marché des produits forestiers non ligneux de l’Afrique centrale en France et en Belgique [The market for Central African non-timber forest products in France and Belgium]. Occasional paper 19. Center for International Forestry Research, Sindangbarang, Bogor 16680, Indonesia.

Talhouk SN, Lubani RT, Baalbaki R, Zurayk R, AlKhatib A, Parmaksizian L, Jaradat AA (2000). Phenotypic diversity and morphological characterization of Amygdalus L. species in Lebanon. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 47:93-104.

Tchoundjeu Z, Atangana AR (2006). Ricinodendron heudelotii. Southampton Centre for Underutilised Crops, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Te Beest M, Stevens N, Olff H, Van Der Putten WH (2009). Plant-soil feedback induces shifts in biomass allocation in the invasive plant Chromolaena odorata. Journal of Ecology 97:1281-1290.

Tiétiambou FRST, Lykke AM, Korbéogo G, Thiombiano A, Ouédraogo A (2015). Perceptions et savoirs locaux sur les espèces oléagineuses locales dans le Kénédougou, Burkina Faso [Local perceptions and knowledge of local oilseed species in Kénédougou, Burkina Faso]. Bois & Forets des Tropiques 327:39.

Tsobeng A, Akem M, Avana M-L, Muchugi A, Degrande A, Tchoundjeu Z, Jamnadass R, Na’a F (2020). Tree-to-tree variation in fruits of three populations of Trichoscypha acuminata (Engl.) in Cameroon. Scientific African 7:e00235.

Tsobeng A, Tchoundjeu Z, Degrande A, Asaah E, Bertin T, Damme PV (2015). Phenotypic variation in Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth (Fabaceae) from the humid lowlands of Cameroon. Afrika Focus 28:47-61.

Vroh B, Ouattara D, Kpangui K (2014). Disponibilité des espèces végétales spontanées à usage traditionnel dans la localité d’Agbaou, Centre ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire [Availability of spontaneous plant species for traditional use in the locality of Agbaou, Central West of Côte d'Ivoire]. Journal of Applied Biosciences 76:6386.

Wang Y, Wang J, Lai L, Jiang L, Zhuang P, Zhang L, Zheng Y, Baskin JM, Baskin CC (2014). Geographic variation in seed traits within and among forty-two species of -tesq (Ericaceae) on the Tibetan plateau: relationships with altitude, habitat, plant height, and phylogeny. Ecology and Evolution 4:1913-1923.

Weltzien E, Rattunde F, Christinck A, Isaacs K, Ashby J (2019). Gender and farmer preferences for varietal traits. Plant Breeding Reviews 43:243-278.

Yirankinyuki FF, Lamayi DW, Muhammad UA, Musa B (2018). Assessing the suitability of Ricinodendron heudelotii seed oil for paint formulation. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry 11(7):37-42.

Zhang L, Lu X, Zhou Q, Deng J (2021). Morphological variability between geographical provenances of walnut fruit (Juglans mandshurica) in the Eastern Liaoning Province, P.R. China. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 30:4353-4364.

How to Cite
BOKO-HAYA, Y. Y., OUINSAVI, C. A., AKIN, Y. Y., & AGBANGLA, C. (2022). Influence of geographic provenance on phenotypic variation in seed and kernel traits of the African oil tree from southern Benin and implications for species breeding. Nova Geodesia, 2(4), 76.
Research articles
DOI: 10.55779/ng2476